The scanning electron microscope uses a focused electron beam which is scanned on the surface of the sample to produce high quality images of the surface topography. SEM essentially offers a very high magnification with very high resolution capabilities and a large depth of focus. This characteristic makes it an indispensable tool for analysis of a wide class of conducting, semi materials.
X-rays are used to produce the diffraction pattern because their wavelength λ is typically the same order of magnitude (1–100 angstroms) as the spacing d between planes in the crystal. In principle, any wave impinging on a regular array of scatterers produces diffraction, as predicted first by Francesco Maria Grimaldi in 1665. To produce significant diffraction, the spacing between the scatterers and the wavelength of the impinging wave should be similar in size. However, visible light has too long a wavelength (typically, 5500 angstroms) to observe diffraction from crystals.
AFM designed to measure the topography of a nonconductive sample. The AFM has undergone several enhancements over the years, allowing it to measure the local resistivity, temperature, elasticity, tribology, as well as allowing studies beyond the limitations of conventional optics.The underlying principle of AFM is the detection of the bending of this cantilevel spring as a response to external forces.
Ellipsometry is a very sensitive measurement technique that uses polarized light to characterize thin films, surfaces, and material microstructures. It derives its sensitivity from the determination of the relative phase change in a beam of reflected polarized light, exceeding the sensitivity of an intensity reflectance measurement. Ellipsometry measures the change in polarization state of light reflected from (or transmitted from) the surface of a sample. Ellipsometry is commonly used to characterize both thin films and bulk materials.
Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) is a thin film deposition technique to deposit the films of the same stoichiometric as that of the target material. The principle of PLD, it involves the physical process of the laser-material interaction (impact of high - power pulsed radiation on solid target), with the formation of plasma plume even the transfer of the ablated material through the plasma plume onto the heated substrate surface.
Vacuum Coater model 12A4 model coating unit for thin film applications with facilities for evaporation, glow discharge cleaning etc. This unit offered with optional access Heating, Rotary Drive, Flash Evaporation, EB Gun evaporation etc. to meet the specific requirements of the customers. It is an ideal unit for thin film coatings in Research, Educational institutions, semiconductor, optics and material development institutions. The Vacuum coating unit & chamber categories are manufactured using high vacuum compatible materials.
Sputter deposition is a physical vapor deposition process for depositing thin films, sputtering means ejecting material from a target and depositing it on a substrate such as silicon wafer. The target is the source material. Substrates are placed in a vacuum chamber and are pumped down to a prescribed process pressure. Sputtering starts when a negative charge is applied to the target material causing a plasma or glow discharge.
Electrochemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies chemical reactions which take place in a solution at the interface of an electron conductor (the electrode: a metal or a semiconductor) and an ionic conductor (the electrolyte). These reactions involve electron transfer between the electrode and the electrolyte or species in solution. Thus electrochemistry deals with interactions between electrical energy and chemical change and vice versa.